bRPC源码解析·bthread调度执行流程

(作者简介:KIDGINBROOK,在昆仑芯参与训练框架开发工作)

整体流程

task_group负责对bthread的调度执行,一个task_group对应一个pthread,内部有两个执行队列,分别为_rq和_remote_rq,执行队列中存放着待执行的bthread,bthread创建的bthread会被存放在_rq,pthread创建的bthread会被存放在_remote_rq。task_control为全局单例,内部有多个task_group。 bthread整体流程

主要接口

TaskControl

TaskControl是一个单例,下面是初始化的过程,主要逻辑即为创建_concurrency个worker(bthread_worker)线程,每个worker执行worker_thread函数

int TaskControl::init(int concurrency) {
    _concurrency = concurrency;
    _workers.resize(_concurrency);   
    for (int i = 0; i < _concurrency; ++i) {
        const int rc = pthread_create(&_workers[i], NULL, worker_thread, this);
        ...
    }
    ...
}

worker_thread的逻辑为通过create_group创建一个TaskGroup g,添加到TaskControl中,设置tls_task_group为g,tls_task_group为tls变量,因此只有worker线程的tls_task_group为非null,然后执行TaskGroup的run_main_task函数

void* TaskControl::worker_thread(void* arg) {
    TaskControl* c = static_cast<TaskControl*>(arg);
    TaskGroup* g = c->create_group();
    ...
    tls_task_group = g;
    c->_nworkers << 1;
    g->run_main_task();
    ...
}
TaskGroup* TaskControl::create_group() {
    ...
    g->init(FLAGS_task_group_runqueue_capacity);
    ...
}

TaskGroup

TaskGroup对应一个pthread,初始化函数如下,创建rq和remote_rq,都是负责存放待执行bthread的队列,然后创建main_stack和main_tid,main_tid代表主流程对应的bthread id,后面会具体讲main_stack和main_tid的作用。TaskMeta为一个bthread的meta信息,如执行函数,参数,local storage等,这里会将cur_meta设置为main_tid对应的TaskMeta。

int TaskGroup::init(size_t runqueue_capacity) {
    _rq.init(runqueue_capacity);
    _remote_rq.init(runqueue_capacity / 2);
    ContextualStack* stk = get_stack(STACK_TYPE_MAIN, NULL);
    ...
    butil::ResourceId<TaskMeta> slot;
    TaskMeta* m = butil::get_resource<TaskMeta>(&slot);
    ...
    m->stop = false;
    m->interrupted = false;
    m->about_to_quit = false;
    m->fn = NULL;
    m->arg = NULL;
    m->local_storage = LOCAL_STORAGE_INIT;
    m->cpuwide_start_ns = butil::cpuwide_time_ns();
    m->stat = EMPTY_STAT;
    m->attr = BTHREAD_ATTR_TASKGROUP;
    m->tid = make_tid(*m->version_butex, slot);
    m->set_stack(stk);

    _cur_meta = m;
    _main_tid = m->tid;
    _main_stack = stk;
    _last_run_ns = butil::cpuwide_time_ns();
    return 0;
}

每个worker会一直在while循环中,如果有可执行的bthread,wait_task会返回对应bthread的tid,否则当前worker会阻塞;wait_task的具体逻辑是先去当前task_group的_remote_rq中pop,如果没有,则去其他的task_group的_rq和_remote_rq中pop。

void TaskGroup::run_main_task() {
    bvar::PassiveStatus<double> cumulated_cputime(
        get_cumulated_cputime_from_this, this);
    std::unique_ptr<bvar::PerSecond<bvar::PassiveStatus<double> > > usage_bvar;

    TaskGroup* dummy = this;
    bthread_t tid;
    while (wait_task(&tid)) {
        TaskGroup::sched_to(&dummy, tid);
        DCHECK_EQ(this, dummy);
        DCHECK_EQ(_cur_meta->stack, _main_stack);
        if (_cur_meta->tid != _main_tid) {
            TaskGroup::task_runner(1/*skip remained*/);
        }
    }
}

当拿到可执行的tid后,调用sched_to,首先通过tid拿到该tid对应的TaskMeta,如果已经为该meta分配过栈,则调用sched_to(pg, next_meta),该函数的主要逻辑为通过jump_stack(cur_meta->stack, next_meta->stack)跳转至next_meta;否则通过get_stack分配一个新栈,并设置该栈的执行入口为task_runner函数。

inline void TaskGroup::sched_to(TaskGroup** pg, bthread_t next_tid) {
    TaskMeta* next_meta = address_meta(next_tid);
    if (next_meta->stack == NULL) {
        ContextualStack* stk = get_stack(next_meta->stack_type(), task_runner);
        if (stk) {
            next_meta->set_stack(stk);
        } else {
            // stack_type is BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD or out of memory,
            // In latter case, attr is forced to be BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD.
            // This basically means that if we can't allocate stack, run
            // the task in pthread directly.
            next_meta->attr.stack_type = BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD;
            next_meta->set_stack((*pg)->_main_stack);
        }
    }
    // Update now_ns only when wait_task did yield.
    sched_to(pg, next_meta);
}

task_runner核心如下,首先执行remain函数,remain为一个bthread在开始运行自己逻辑前需要做的一些工作,后面会看到;然后执行该meta的函数,因为函数执行过程中该bth可能会调度至其他worker,因此task_group可能发生改变,所以执行完成后重新对g进行设置;最后调用ending_sched。

void TaskGroup::task_runner(intptr_t skip_remained) {
    // NOTE: tls_task_group is volatile since tasks are moved around
    //       different groups.
    TaskGroup* g = tls_task_group;

    if (!skip_remained) {
        while (g->_last_context_remained) {
            RemainedFn fn = g->_last_context_remained;
            g->_last_context_remained = NULL;
            fn(g->_last_context_remained_arg);
            g = tls_task_group;
        }
    }

    do {
       
        TaskMeta* const m = g->_cur_meta;
        try {
            thread_return = m->fn(m->arg);
        } catch (ExitException& e) {
            thread_return = e.value();
        }

        // Group is probably changed
        g = tls_task_group;
        ...
        g->set_remained(TaskGroup::_release_last_context, m);
        ending_sched(&g);

    } while (g->_cur_meta->tid != g->_main_tid);

    // Was called from a pthread and we don't have BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD
    // tasks to run, quit for more tasks.
}

ending_sched会尝试获取一个可执行的bth,如果没有的话,则下一个执行的则为main_tid对应的meta;然后通过上述的sched_to(next_meta)跳转到next_meta。

void TaskGroup::ending_sched(TaskGroup** pg) {
    TaskGroup* g = *pg;
    bthread_t next_tid = 0;
    // Find next task to run, if none, switch to idle thread of the group.
#ifndef BTHREAD_FAIR_WSQ
    // When BTHREAD_FAIR_WSQ is defined, profiling shows that cpu cost of
    // WSQ::steal() in example/multi_threaded_echo_c++ changes from 1.9%
    // to 2.9%
    const bool popped = g->_rq.pop(&next_tid);
#else
    const bool popped = g->_rq.steal(&next_tid);
#endif
    if (!popped && !g->steal_task(&next_tid)) {
        // Jump to main task if there's no task to run.
        next_tid = g->_main_tid;
    }

    TaskMeta* const cur_meta = g->_cur_meta;
    TaskMeta* next_meta = address_meta(next_tid);
    if (next_meta->stack == NULL) {
        if (next_meta->stack_type() == cur_meta->stack_type()) {
            // also works with pthread_task scheduling to pthread_task, the
            // transfered stack is just _main_stack.
            next_meta->set_stack(cur_meta->release_stack());
        } else {
            ContextualStack* stk = get_stack(next_meta->stack_type(), task_runner);
            if (stk) {
                next_meta->set_stack(stk);
            } else {
                // stack_type is BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD or out of memory,
                // In latter case, attr is forced to be BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD.
                // This basically means that if we can't allocate stack, run
                // the task in pthread directly.
                next_meta->attr.stack_type = BTHREAD_STACKTYPE_PTHREAD;
                next_meta->set_stack(g->_main_stack);
            }
        }
    }
    sched_to(pg, next_meta);
}

main tid

然后说下开始提到的main_tid/main_stack,task_group是一个pthread,在执行bthread时,会运行在该bthread栈中,其他时刻都是运行在pthread栈中。brpc并没有为pthread重新分配一个栈,而是仅仅记录了pthread栈的位置,main_stack即为pthread栈,而main_tid则代表了这个pthread。

下面来看下是如何实现这一过程的

int TaskGroup::init(size_t runqueue_capacity) {
    ...
    ContextualStack* stk = get_stack(STACK_TYPE_MAIN, NULL);
    ...
}

在上面TaskGroup::init中,可以看到ContextualStack* stk = get_stack(STACK_TYPE_MAIN, NULL); STACK_TYPE_MAIN即为main_stack的类型,get_stack会调用StackFactory的get_stack,StackFactory是个模板类,get_stack会分配栈空间,然后针对STACK_TYPE_MAIN做了特化,此时不会分配栈空间,仅仅返回一个ContextualStack对象;

template <> struct StackFactory<MainStackClass> {
    static ContextualStack* get_stack(void (*)(intptr_t)) {
        ContextualStack* s = new (std::nothrow) ContextualStack;
        if (NULL == s) {
            return NULL;
        }
        s->context = NULL;
        s->stacktype = STACK_TYPE_MAIN;
        s->storage.zeroize();
        return s;
    }
    
    static void return_stack(ContextualStack* s) {
        delete s;
    }
};

然后在切换到bthread执行的过程中,会调用jump_stack(cur_meta->stack, next_meta->stack)

inline void jump_stack(ContextualStack* from, ContextualStack* to) {
    bthread_jump_fcontext(&from->context, to->context, 0/*not skip remained*/);
}

cur_meta此时为main_tid对应的taskmeta,next_meta为即将要执行的meta;由前面文章可知bthread_jump_fcontext执行时,会将当前各个寄存器push到当前栈中,即pthread栈,然后将esp赋值给(rdi),即from->context,因此main_tid的stack便指向了pthread栈。

主要接口

接下来看下bthread提供的接口,以bthread_start_urgent和bthread_start_background为例,如函数名所示,前者对新建的bthread以”高优先级”处理,后者以”低优先级”处理,后面会看到优先级的意思。首先看下bthread_start_urgent

bthread_start_urgent
int bthread_start_urgent(bthread_t* __restrict tid,
                         const bthread_attr_t* __restrict attr,
                         void * (*fn)(void*),
                         void* __restrict arg) {
    bthread::TaskGroup* g = bthread::tls_task_group;
    if (g) {
        // start from worker
        return bthread::TaskGroup::start_foreground(&g, tid, attr, fn, arg);
    }
    return bthread::start_from_non_worker(tid, attr, fn, arg);
}

由上可知,tls_task_group为tls,普通pthread的tls_task_group为null,先以普通pthread看下整体流程;此时普通pthread会调用start_from_non_worker。

BUTIL_FORCE_INLINE int
start_from_non_worker(bthread_t* __restrict tid,
                      const bthread_attr_t* __restrict attr,
                      void * (*fn)(void*),
                      void* __restrict arg) {
    TaskControl* c = get_or_new_task_control();
    if (NULL == c) {
        return ENOMEM;
    }
    if (attr != NULL && (attr->flags & BTHREAD_NOSIGNAL)) {
        // Remember the TaskGroup to insert NOSIGNAL tasks for 2 reasons:
        // 1. NOSIGNAL is often for creating many bthreads in batch,
        //    inserting into the same TaskGroup maximizes the batch.
        // 2. bthread_flush() needs to know which TaskGroup to flush.
        TaskGroup* g = tls_task_group_nosignal;
        if (NULL == g) {
            g = c->choose_one_group();
            tls_task_group_nosignal = g;
        }
        return g->start_background<true>(tid, attr, fn, arg);
    }
    return c->choose_one_group()->start_background<true>(
        tid, attr, fn, arg);
}

start_from_non_worker会尝试获取taskcontrol单例,如果没有则创建一个,并初始化好一定数量的taskgroup;然后选择一个taskgroup,调用start_background

template <bool REMOTE>
int TaskGroup::start_background(bthread_t* __restrict th,
                                const bthread_attr_t* __restrict attr,
                                void * (*fn)(void*),
                                void* __restrict arg) {
    ...
    butil::ResourceId<TaskMeta> slot;
    TaskMeta* m = butil::get_resource(&slot);
    ...
    m->fn = fn;
    m->arg = arg;
    ...
    if (REMOTE) {
        ready_to_run_remote(m->tid, (using_attr.flags & BTHREAD_NOSIGNAL));
    } else {
        ready_to_run(m->tid, (using_attr.flags & BTHREAD_NOSIGNAL));
    }
    return 0;
}

REMOTE表示创建该bthread的线程是普通pthread还是bthread_worker,函数主要逻辑为创建taskmeta,然后调用ready_to_run_remote将该tid加入到taskgroup的remote_rq中。

然后看下bthread_worker调用bthread_start_urgent的过程,这种场景其实是在bthread中创建bthread,此时会调用start_foreground,然后创建taskmeta,并直接切换到这个新的bthread运行,即”高优先级”。

int TaskGroup::start_foreground(TaskGroup** pg,
                                bthread_t* __restrict th,
                                const bthread_attr_t* __restrict attr,
                                void * (*fn)(void*),
                                void* __restrict arg) {
    ...
    TaskGroup* g = *pg;
    g->_control->_nbthreads << 1;
    if (g->is_current_pthread_task()) {
        // never create foreground task in pthread.
        g->ready_to_run(m->tid, (using_attr.flags & BTHREAD_NOSIGNAL));
    } else {
        // NOSIGNAL affects current task, not the new task.
        RemainedFn fn = NULL;
        if (g->current_task()->about_to_quit) {
            fn = ready_to_run_in_worker_ignoresignal;
        } else {
            fn = ready_to_run_in_worker;
        }
        ReadyToRunArgs args = {
            g->current_tid(),
            (bool)(using_attr.flags & BTHREAD_NOSIGNAL)
        };
        g->set_remained(fn, &args);
        TaskGroup::sched_to(pg, m->tid);
    }
    return 0;
}

start_foreground最后,这里会设置当前task_group的remain,上文提到在task_runner中,bthread在真正执行自己meta的逻辑前会先执行remain,start_foreground会抢占当前bthread的执行,因此通过remain将当前bthread重新push到rq中等待执行。

bthread_start_background

接口bthread_start_background对于普通pthread的情况和bthread_start_urgent一致;而对于bthread_worker则会调用start_background,此时在新建taskmeta后会调用ready_to_run,此时会将该bthread push到rq中,而不是直接切换运行,即”低优先级”。

修改于 2024年4月23日: Update index.md (cbc2c5f)